Natural Astaxanthin

A potent, all-natural antioxidant for support of healthy brain function, eyes, joints, cardiovascular health, energy, athletic performance, skin and overall healthy aging

It’s never a bad idea to start thinking about aging well long before the effects of getting older set in. Although we now know that a key part of healthy aging is a high-nutrition diet and exercise, it is not always easy to get enough nutrients from diet alone. That is where supplementing with an antioxidant can help. Astaxanthin is now emerging as one of the most important, clinically-validated antioxidants with hundreds of pre-clinical and human clinical trials demonstrating 10 health benefits, including its support for brain & eye health, immune system modulation, cardiovascular support, cellular health, joint & muscle support, and athletic performance & energy.

Princeton Vitamins is pleased to announce the introduction of its Natural Astaxanthin formula with the clinically-proven Astazine® ingredient, one of the most well-studied astaxanthin ingredients and the world’s purest natural astaxanthin. The formula is 100% natural astaxanthin, which is a solvent-free extract from Haematococcus pluvialis micraoalgae.

Astaxanthin has six important qualities that make it the most effective,
high quality antioxidants you can take:

  • Astaxanthin spans the cell membrane to protect the entire cell including both the fat-soluble and water-soluble parts of our cells. (Other antioxidants generally can only protect one part or the other.)
  • Astaxanthin can handle multiple free radicals in our bodies at once, while most other antioxidants can only handle one-at-a-time.
  • Unlike other antioxidants, astaxanthin can never become a Pro-Oxidant (which can cause additional oxidation and damage to our cells).
  • Astaxanthin can cross the blood brain barrier and bring its antioxidant activity and broad-spectrum anti-inflammatory properties to help protect the brain. Once there, astaxanthin crosses the blood retinal barrier to support eye health.
  • Astaxanthin can get into the skin where it helps prevent photo-aging and improves the skin’s appearance and quality from the inside out.
  • Astaxanthin can bond with muscle tissue to control oxidation and inflammation, which is of great value to athletes and active people whose muscles can have 10X the level of oxidation as sedentary people (Capelli, 2018).

Proven anti-aging health benefits: The “Ultimate Anti-Aging Nutrient”

Clinical trials have shown that astaxanthin provides support for some of the body systems most vulnerable to aging at doses of 4 mg to 12 mg daily.

Joint, tendon and muscle health: Clinical studies suggest that astaxanthin supports these functions by decreasing C-Reactive Protein levels (a key marker of systemic inflammation) and preventing muscle damage and inflammation for athletes and active seniors (Park, 2010; Spiller, 2006a; Spiller, 2006b; Nir, 2002a; Nir, 2002b; Fry, 2013; Fry, 2004; Fry, 2001).*

Eye health: Clinical trials have also demonstrated astaxanthin’s support of healthy eyes by improving visual acuity, depth perception, eye fatigue and supporting retinal capillary blood flow (Nagaki, 2002; Nakamura, 2004; Nitta, 2005; Iwasaki, 2006; Takahashi, 2005; Yasunori, 2005; Saito, 2012; Sawaki, 2001).*

Brain health: Maintaining mental acuity is one of the most important functions to keep quality of life and independence with age. Studies show astaxanthin can prevent age-related decline in cognitive function and even improve cognitive performance in healthy middle-aged and elderly subjects (Satoh, 2009; Nakagawa, 2011; Katagiri, 2012; Hongo, 2016).*

Cardiovascular support: Astaxanthin supports healthy heart function by improving the blood lipid parameters for those with mild hyperlipidemia. It can also inhibit LDL cholesterol oxidation and improve blood flow rate (Iwamoto, 2000; Hiroshige, 2004; Karppi, 2007; Yoshida, 2010; Nagata, 2003; Tajima, 2004; Miyawaki, 2008).*

Immune system modulation: Studies also suggest that astaxanthin can improve immune function by enhancing a variety of immunity markers including increasing the total number of anti-body producing B-cells, amplifying natural killer cell cytotoxic activity, stimulating white blood cell counts and reducing DNA damage (Park, 2010; Chew, 2006; Baralic, 2015).*

Boost energy and athletic performance: Emerging research is finding a link between heart and brain function (the Heart/Brain Axis) that has a profound effect on athletes. AstaZine® Natural Astaxanthin, for example, has been shown to affect heart rate during endurance training as well as improve mood state. These markers are not only important for athletic performance but also for active people looking for more energy and endurance. In addition, astaxanthin has shown a range of benefits for athletes and active people including enhancing recovery, improving strength and endurance, preventing physical & mental fatigue, and enhancing energy metabolism (Talbott, 2017a; Talbott, 2017b; Talbott, 2017c; Earnest, 2011; Baralic, 2013; Malmstem, 2008; Nagata, 2003; Tajima, 2004; Hongo, 2016).*

Male Fertility: Clinical studies also suggest a role for astaxanthin in male fertility, helping to improve sperm function and increase sperm linear velocity. It has also been shown to enhance sperm quality and motility in normal men without any fertility issues (Garem, 2002; Comhaire, 2005; Andrisini, 2015).*

Skin health: Even as people age, they want to keep looking and feeling young. Astaxanthin is a key nutrient for beauty-from-within. Clinical trials have shown it can reduce fine lines and wrinkles, increase skin moisture levels, enhance skin elasticity, and reduce visible signs of UV aging (Yamashita, 2006; Tominaga, 2012; Tominaga, 2017; Yoon, 2014).*

Over 600 human clinical trials and pre-clinical studies have shown astaxanthin’s importance as a strong, high quality antioxidant and safe & natural anti-inflammatory with an important role in overall cellular health as well as supporting healthy aging of key body systems.

Product Highlights
  • 100% Natural
  • 100% vegetarian softgel
  • Solvent free
  • Supercritical fluid extraction
  • Gelatin free

LOGO-NAXA-verified_052416Princeton Vitamin’s Natural Astaxanthin formula is a Natural Algae Astaxanthin Association (NAXA) verified product and is now available at select pharmacies, health food stores, and

*The FDA has not evaluated these statements. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.


Andrisini, A., Dona, G., Tibaldi, E., Brunati A., Sabbadin, C., Armanini, D., Alvisi, G., Gizzo, S., Ambrosini, G., Ragazzi, E., Bordin, L. (2015). “Astaxanthin improves human sperm capacitation by inducing lyn displacement and activation.” Marine Drugs. 2015 Aug 25;13(9):5533-51.

Baralic, I., Andjelkovic, M., Djordjevic, B., Dikic,, N., Radivojevic, N., Suzin-Zivkovic,, V., Radojevic-Skodric, S., Pejic, S. (2015). “Effect of astaxanthin supplementation on Salivary IgA, oxidative stress, inflammation in young soccer players.” Evidence Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2015;2015:783761.

Baralic, I., Djordjevic, B., Dikic, N., Kotur-Stevulijevic, J., Spasic, S., Jelic-Ivanovic, ,Z., Radivojevic, N., Andjelkovic, M., Pejic, S. (2013). “Effect of astaxanthin supplementation on paraoxonase 1 activities and oxidative stress in young soccer players.” Phytotherapy Research. 2013 Oct;27(10):1536-42.

Capelli, B., Ding, L. (2018). “Natural Astaxanthin: The Supplement You Can Feel.” ISBN-13: 978-0-9992223-0-0.

Chew, B., Park, J. (2006). US Patent Application #20060217445.

Comhaire, F., El Garem, Y., Mahmoud, A., Eertmans, F., Schoonjans, F. (2005). “Combined con­ventional/ antioxidant ‘astaxanthin’ treatment for male infertility: A double-blind, randomized trial.” Asian J. Andrology. 7(3):257-262.

Earnest, CP., Lupo, M., White, KM., Church, TS. (2011). “Effect of astaxanthin on cycling time trial performance.” International Journal of Sports Medicine. 2011 Nov;32(11):882-8.

Fry, A., Schilling, B., Chiu, L., Hori, N., Weiss, L. (2013). “Astaxanthin supplementation.”

Human Performance Laboratories, The University of Memphis, TN, USA 38152. Unpublished study cited in “The World’s Best Kept Health Secret: Natural Astaxanthin” Capelli, B. and Cysewski, G. (2014).

Fry, A., Schilling, B., Chiu, L., Hori, N., Weiss, L. (2004) “Astaxanthin supplementation.” Human Performance Laboratories. The University of Memphis. Report 2, May 2004. Unpublished study cited in “The World’s Best Kept Health Secret: Natural Astaxanthin” Capelli, B. and Cysewski, G. (2014).

Fry, A. (2001). “Astaxanthin clinical trial for delayed-onset muscular soreness.” Human Perfor­mance Laboratories. The University of Memphis. Report 1, August 16, 2001. Unpublished study cited in “The World’s Best Kept Health Secret: Natural Astaxanthin” Capelli, B. and Cysewski, G. (2014).

Garem, Y., Lignell, A., Comhaire, F. (2002). “Natural astaxanthin improves semen quality in infer­tile men.” XIII International Carotenoid Symposium Hawaii, January 2002. Patent Cooperation Treaty Application WO99 / 29313. AstaCarotene AB, Sweden.

Hiroshige, I. (2004). “Multivitamin and Carotenoid Supplements.” Progress in Medicinal Chemistry. F0664B 0287-3648 Vol. 24;No.6;Page1437-1442.

Hongo et al. (2016). “Randomized controlled trial of the anti-fatigue effects of astaxanthin on mental and physical loads simulating daily life.” Journal of Clinical Therapeutics & Medicines. 32.7(2016):277-91.

Iwamoto, T., Hosoda, K., Hirano, R., Kurata, H., Matsumoto, A., Miki, W., Kamiyama, M., Itakura, H., Yamamoto, S., Kondo, K. (2000). “Inhibition of low-density lipoprotein oxidation by astax­anthin.” Journal of Atherosclerosis Thrombosis. 7(4):216-22.

Iwasaki, T. and Tahara, A. (2006). “Effects of astaxanthin on eye strain and accommodative dysfunction.” Journal of the Eye. Vol. 23 No. 6 Page 829-834 (2006).

Karppi, J., Rissanen, TH., Nyyssonen, K., Kaikkonen, J., Olsson, AG., Voutilainen, S., Salonen, JT. (2007). “Effects of astaxanthin supplementation on lipid peroxidation.” International Journal for Vitamin Nutrition Research. 77(1):3-11.

Katagiri, M., Satoh, A., Tsuji, S., Shirasawa, T. (2012). “Effects of astaxanthin-rich Haematococcus pluvialis extract on cognitive function: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.” Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition. 2012 Sep;51(2):102-7.

Malmsten, C., Lignell, A. (2008). “Dietary supplementation with astaxanthin-rich algal meal im­proves strengh endurance-Adouble blind placebo controlled study on male students.” Carot­enoid Science, 2008.

Miyawaki, H., Takahashi, J., Tsukahara, H., Takehara, I. (2008). “Effects of astaxanthin on human blood rheology.” Journal of Clinical Biochemistry Nutrition. 43(2):9-74.

Nagaki, Y., Hayasaka, S., Yamada, T., Hayasaka, Y., Sanada, M., Uonomi, T. (2002). “Effects of astaxanthin on accommodation, critical flicker fusion, and pattern visual evoked potential in visual display terminal workers.” Journal of Traditional Medicines. 19(5):170–173.

Nagata, A., Tajima, T., Hamamatsu, H. (2003). “Effects of astaxanthin on recovery from whole fatigue with three stepwise exercises.” Hiro to Kyuyo no Kagaku 2003 Vol. 18;No.1;Pages 35-46.

Nakagawa, K., Kiko, T., Miyazawa, T., Carpentero Burdeos, G., Kimura, F., Satoh, A. (2011). “Anti­oxidant effect of astaxanthin on phospholipid peroxidation in human erythrocytes.” The British Journal of Nutrition. 105(11):1563-71.

Nakamura et al. (2004). “Changes in visual function following peroral astaxanthin.” Japanese Jour­nal of Clinical Ophthalmology. 58(6):1051-1054.

Nir, Y., Spiller, G. (2002a). “BioAstin, a natural astaxanthin from microalgae, helps relieve pain and improves performance in patients with carpel tunnel syndrome (CTS).” Journal of the American College of Nutrition. 21(5):Oct, 2002.

Nir, Y., Spiller, G. (2002b). “BioAstin helps relieve pain and improves performance in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.” Journal of the American College of Nutrition. 21(5):Oct, 2002.

Nitta, T., Ogami, K., Shiratori, K. (2005). “The effects of astaxanthin on accommodation and asthe­nopia—Dose finding study in healthy volunteers.” Clinical Medicine. 21(5):543-556.

Park, J., Chyun, J., Kim, Y., Line, L., Chew, B. (2010). “Astaxanthin decreased oxidative stress and inflammation and enhanced immune response in humans.” Nutrition and Metabolism. 2010 Mar 5;7:18.

Saito, M., Yoshida, K., Saito, W., Fujiya, A., Ohgami, K., Kitaichi, N., Tsukahara, H., Ishida, S., Ohno, S. (2012). “Astaxanthin increased choroidal blood flow velocity.” Graefes Archive Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology. 2012 Feb;250(2):239-45.

Satoh, A., Tsuji, S., Okada, Y., Murakami, N., Urami, M., Nakagawa, K., Ishikura, M., Katagiri, M., Koga, Y., Shirasawa, T. (2009). “Preliminary clinical evaluation of toxicity and efficacy of a new astaxanthin-rich Haematococcus pluvialis extract.” Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition. 44(3):280-4.183

Sawaki, K., Yoshigi, H., Aoki, K., Koikawa, N., Azumane, A., Kaneko, K., Yamaguchi, M. (2002). “Sports performance benefits from taking natural astaxanthin characterized by visual acuity and muscle fatigue improvements in humans.” Journal of Clinical Therapeutics & Medicines. 18:(9)73-88.

Spiller, G., Dewell, A., Chaves, S., Rakidzich, Z. (2006a). “Effect of daily use of natural astaxanthin on C-reactive protein.” Unpublished study cited in “The World’s Best Kept Health Secret: Natural Astaxanthin” Capelli, B. and Cysewski, G. (2014).

Spiller, G., Dewell, A., Chaves, S., Rakadzich, Z. (2006b). “Effect of daily use of natural astaxanthin on symptoms associated with Tennis Elbow (lateral humeral epicondylitis).” Unpublished study cited in “The World’s Best Kept Health Secret: Natural Astaxanthin” Capelli, B. and Cysewski, G. (2014).

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supplementation on cardiorespiratory function in runners.” EC Nutrition. 11.6(2016:253-9.

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Tominaga, K., Hongo, N., Karato, M., & Yamashita, E. (2012). “Cosmetic benefits of astaxanthin on human subjects.” Acta Biochim. Pol, 59(1), 43-47.

Yamashita, E. (2006). “The effects of a dietary supplement containing astaxanthin on skin condi­tion.” Carotenoid Science. 2006.

Yasunori et al. (2005). “The effect of astaxanthin on retinal capillary blood flow in normal volun­teers.” J. Clin. Ther. Med. 21(5):537-542.

Yoon, H., Cho, H., Cho, S., Lee, S., Shin, M., Chung, J. (2014). “Supplementing with dietary astaxanthin combined with collagen hydrolysate improves facial elasticity and decreases matrix metalloproteinase-1 and -12 expression: a comparative study with placebo.” Journal of Medicinal Food. 2014 Jul;17(7):810-6.

Yoshida, H., Yanai, H., Ito, K., Tomono, Y., Koikeda, T., Tsukahara, H., Tada, N. (2010). “Administra­tion of natural astaxanthin increases serum HDL-cholesterol and adiponection in subjects with mild hyperlipidemia.” Atherosclerosis. 209(2):520-3.